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Molecular Biology Assignment Help
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Topics That Our Molecular Biology Assignment Help Covers

– DNA Structure and Replication

– The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology

– Protein Synthesis: Translation, Transcription, and Reverse Transcriptase

– Genetic Code

– Bioenergetics (ATP) & Photosynthesis by Plants.

Molecular Biology Assignment Help: DNA Structure and Replication

DNA is a double-stranded molecule that has two strands of nucleotides twisted together. The bases are linked by hydrogen bonds to form the rungs on one strand and oppose those on the other strand to form a DNA ladder.

This helical structure also means it can be replicated as both strands separate because they’re held together by water molecules that break easily without disrupting either side’s base pairing. The process involves many enzymes including helicase, topoisomerases I and II, gyrase with ATP hydrolysis providing energy for this task!

Molecular Biology Assignment Help: The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology

The central dogma in molecular biology is an idea explaining how DNA codes for RNA which then codes for proteins. It was first proposed by Francis Crick (Nobel Prize winner) and James Watson as a way to describe the cellular process of how life passes hereditary information between generations. It consists of three major steps; transcription, translation, and reverse transcriptase.

Transcription refers to when mRNA copies its genetic code from one strand of DNA to create matching strands of ribonucleic acids using enzymes called polymerases like TTF-polymerase or DNA-dependent DNA polymerase. Transcription is a messenger process, where one strand of DNA dictates the instructions needed to make proteins out of mRNA for use in cells and tissues.

The central dogma also touches on translation, which refers to when mRNA molecules with their genetic code are translated into protein chains by ribosomes containing RNA or tRNA and other enzymes called transferases like aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase. Reverse transcriptase completes the cycle by copying all three strands of RNA back onto matching lengths of single-stranded DNA that can be used as new templates during transcription again later.

Molecular Biology Assignment Help: Translation and Transcription

Translation and transcription are two major processes that make up the central dogma. The translation is when information from RNA templates made during a process called transcription, in which polymerases help to synthesize new chains of DNA from an original template strand.

Transcription starts with mRNA molecules being copied by enzymes called primers or polymerase so they can be used as templates for encoding proteins. These transcripts often need additional processing before translation like removing introns and adding poly-A tails but this step isn’t always needed.

The first enzyme-linked to these reactions is tRNA synthetase and it attaches appropriate amino acids onto transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) at specific sites on its surface known as anticodons matching the three-nucleotide sequence that codes for a specific amino acid.

The last enzyme is called the elongation factor and it recognizes the stop codon to release tRNA from ribosomes which are usually made of proteins encoded by DNA templates.

Molecular Biology Assignment Help: Reverse Transcriptase

Reverse transcriptase is one of three main processes that make up the central dogma. It copies RNA back to DNA so it can be used as templates during transcription again later. This process has two major steps; first, the enzyme RT binds with a short stretch of RNA and creates an inactive complex containing both molecules to copy this into a reverse-complement form on a single-stranded template molecule. Secondly, the resulting double strand is then converted by another enzymatic step which synthesizes free dNTPs from preexisting nucleoside triphosphates like ATP or GTP.

The DNA created by the reverse transcriptase process is then available to be transcribed into mRNA and translated as a protein, completing the cycle (see Figure). Reverse-transcription has been found in many viruses such as HIV or influenza A virus and retroviruses like human T cell leukemia. It can also occur when cells are stimulated with agents that cause them to produce both RNA and proteins at high levels during the synthesis of ribosomes for example. For this reason, RT has become an important technique used in molecular biology today!

Molecular Biology Assignment Help: Genetic Code

The Genetic Code is a set of rules that explains how the information stored in DNA is used to create RNA and, from there, proteins. There are only 20 amino acids found in nature which can be encoded by 64 combinations created when three bases are lined up on one strand of DNA.

Each base corresponds to an amino acid with adenine (A) corresponding for alanine (Ala), guanine (G) encoding as arginine Arg or glycine Gly, cytosine (C) matching cysteine Cys or threonine Thr and thymine T encoding tryptophan Trp and tyrosine Tyro). These triplets make up codons that dictate what instructions each mRNA strand will read.

The Genetic Code is divided into three reading frames so that the mRNA can be translated in both directions from a sequence of DNA and RNA bases which are lined up end-to-end.

Molecular Biology Assignment Help: Bioenergetics (ATP) & Photosynthesis by Plants.

Bioenergetics is the process of cellular respiration where glucose and oxygen are converted into ATP. It happens in two phases with glycolysis being anaerobic, happening without any need for air to use up carbs as fuel for energy.

The breakdown of carbohydrates begins with a step called substrate-level phosphorylation which uses enzymes like hexokinase or pyruvate kinases that make it so phosphorus can be released from high levels found in GTP.

ATP synthase then takes this phosphate group so it can interact with ADP and convert its shape to form ATP! This reaction produces about 30% more usable energy than aerobic processes because there’s no need to rely on other pathways such as the electron transport chain that must make use of oxygen.

Photosynthesis by plants happens with green chloroplasts which capture energy from sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose as a product. In this process, light-dependent reactions are used for glycolysis while dark reactions break down products like pyruvate or oxaloacetate so they can be reassembled to produce new molecules like glucose!

Techniques That Our Molecular Biology Assignment Help Covers

Molecular Biology is a constantly evolving field with many techniques that are used to better understand the molecular makeup of living organisms. These include but are not limited to:

– DNA sequencing

– Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

– Electrophoresis

-Molecular cloning

DNA Sequencing and PCR are two major techniques in Molecular Biology which use enzymes like primers, polymerases, ligases, or restriction endonucleases as well as dNTPs for building complementary strands of DNA from other sources such as messenger RNA. The first technique sequences bases on one strand at high resolution while the second technique makes millions of copies of segments about 200 base pairs long before separating them by size using gel electrophoresis so they can be visualized.

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