Help with Embedded system Assignment
An embedded system is a combination of computer hardware and software designed for a specific function. Embedded systems may also function within a larger system. The systems can be programmable or have a fixed functionality. Industrial machines, consumer electronics, agricultural and processing industry devices, automobiles, medical equipment, cameras, digital watches, household appliances, airplanes, vending machines and toys, as well as mobile devices, are possible locations for an embedded system. embedded system assignments are very challenging they take a lot of students time and effort. But at assignmentsguru, When a company hires a digital agency to do a task, they expect the quality of work to be high. So when an employer chooses us, they know that we will deliver the best possible content for them. They should not have any concerns about our clients’ satisfaction or can relax because we can guarantee their content will be top notch and the final result will be something more than expected
Devices of all shapes and sizes are now amassing on our desktops. From laptops to smart phones, they come with new features that make it easy for us to survive in this digital age. User interface features on a system may include buttons, LEDs, and touchscreen sensing. Systems that allow remote user interfaces can also be available as a choice.
The embedded market, which is expected to be worth $116.2 billion by 2025, will continue to depend on chip manufacturers for significant revenue. Those who are investing in this market are expecting it to expand rapidly over the next couple of years as organizations look for ways to cut down on electronic waste due to digital transformation. The continued application of AI has attributed to the rise in mobile productivity. This is important in today’s times due to the logistics of mobile computing. Companies are investing in high-level chip designs so they can process performance faster than ever before with fewer energy expenditures
Examples of embedded systems
Embedded systems are used in a wide range of technologies across an array of industries. Some examples include:
- Automobiles. Modern cars commonly consist of many computers (sometimes as many as 100), or embedded systems, designed to perform different tasks within the vehicle. Some of these systems perform basic utility functions and others provide entertainment or user-facing functions. Some embedded systems in consumer vehicles include cruise control, backup sensors, suspension control, navigation systems and airbag systems.
- Mobile phones. These consist of many embedded systems, including GUI software and hardware, operating systems (OSes), cameras, microphones, and USB (Universal Serial Bus) I/O (input/output) modules.
- Industrial machines. They can contain embedded systems, like sensors, and can be embedded systems themselves. Industrial machines often have embedded automation systems that perform specific monitoring and control functions.
- Medical equipment. Medical equipment, such as industrial machines, must be very user-friendly so that human health isn’t jeopardized by preventable machine mistakes. This means they’ll often include a more complex OS and GUI designed for an appropriate UI.
How does an embedded system work?
Embedded systems are low-cost, low-power-consuming, small computers that are embedded in other mechanical or electrical systems. Generally, embedded systems consist of a processor, power supply, and memory and communication ports. They use the communication ports to transmit data between the processor and peripheral devices, often other embedded systems, using a communication protocol. The processor interprets this data with the help of minimal software stored on the memory. The software is usually highly specific to the function that the embedded system serves.
The processor may be a microprocessor or microcontroller. Microcontrollers are simply microprocessors with peripheral interfaces and integrated memory included. Microprocessors use separate integrated circuits for memory and peripherals instead of including them on the chip. Both can be used, but microprocessors typically require more support circuitry than microcontrollers because there is less integrated into the microprocessor. Systems on a chip can often be found in high-volume systems – usually embedded systems. Some types of SoC’s are ASIC’s and Tensilica.
Often, embedded systems are used in real-time operating environments and use a real-time operating system (RTOS) to communicate with the hardware. Near-real-time approaches are suitable at higher levels of chip capability, defined by designers who have increasingly decided the systems are generally fast enough and the tasks tolerant of slight variations in reaction. Microsoft Windows Embedded provides a stripped-down version of the Linux operating system. It is commonly deployed on low-powered systems like IoT devices, along with other OSes like Embedded Java & Windows IoT (formerly Windows Embedded).
Characteristics of embedded systems
The main characteristic of embedded systems is that they are task-specific.
Additionally, embedded systems can include the following characteristics:
- typically, consist of hardware, software and firmware;
- can be embedded in a larger system to perform a specific function, as they are built for specialized tasks within the system, not various tasks;
- can be either microprocessor-based or microcontroller-based — both are integrated circuits that give the system compute power;
- Some AI tools like machine learning and natural language processing are used for sensing and real-time computing, similar to IoT devices that need to connect with the internet.
- can vary in complexity and in function, which affects the type of software, firmware and hardware they use; and
- are often required to perform their function under a time constraint to keep the larger system functioning properly.
Structure of embedded systems
Embedded systems vary in complexity but, generally, consist of three main elements:
- Hardware. The hardware of embedded systems is based around microprocessors and microcontrollers. Microprocessors are very similar to microcontrollers and, typically, refer to a CPU (central processing unit) that is integrated with other basic computing components such as memory chips and digital signal processors (DSPs). Microcontrollers provide you with more software-based functionality than the traditional microprocessors which don’t have many additional features.
- Software and firmware. Software for embedded systems varies in complexity. However, industrial-grade microcontrollers and embedded IoT systems usually run very simple software that requires little memory.
- Real-time operating system. These are not always included in embedded systems, especially smaller-scale systems. RTOSes define how the system works by supervising the software and setting rules during program execution.
In terms of hardware, a basic embedded system would consist of the following elements:
- Sensors convert physical sense data into an electrical signal.
- Analog-to-digital (A-D) converters change an analog electrical signal into a digital one.
- Processors process digital signals and store them in memory.
- Digital-to-analog (D-A) converters change the digital data from the processor into analog data.
- Actuators compare actual output to memory-stored output and choose the correct one.
The sensor reads external inputs, the converters make that input readable to the processor, and the processor turns that information into useful output for the embedded system.
Types of embedded systems
There are a few basic embedded system types, which differ in their functional requirements. They are:
- Mobile embedded systems are small-sized systems that are designed to be portable. Digital cameras are an example of this.
- Networked embedded systems are connected to a network to provide output to other systems. Examples include home security systems and point of sale (POS) systems.
- Standalone embedded systems are not reliant on a host system. Like any embedded system, they perform a specialized task. However, they do not necessarily belong to a host system, unlike other embedded systems. A calculator or MP3 player is an example of this.
- Real-time embedded systems give the required output in a defined time interval. They are often used in medical, industrial and military sectors because they are responsible for time-critical tasks. A traffic control system is an example of this.
Embedded systems can also be categorized by their performance requirements:
- Small-scale embedded systems often use no more than an 8-bit microcontroller.
- Medium-scale embedded systems use a larger microcontroller (16-32 bit) and often link microcontrollers together.
- Sophisticated-scale embedded systems often use several algorithms that result in software and hardware complexities and may require more complex software, a configurable processor and/or a programmable logic array.
Embedded system architectures
There are several common embedded system software architectures, which become necessary as embedded systems grow and become more complex in scale. These include:
- Simple control loops call subroutines, which manage a specific part of the hardware or embedded programming.
- Interrupt controlled systems have two loops: a main one and a secondary one. Interruptions in the loops trigger tasks.
- Cooperative multitasking is essentially a simple control loop located in an application programming interface (API).
- Preemptive multitasking or multithreading is often used with an RTOS and features synchronization and task switching strategies
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