Coaxial cable Assignment help


Coaxial cable is a type of copper cable specially built with a metal shield and other components engineered to block signal interference. It is primarily used by cable TV companies to connect their satellite antenna facilities to customer homes and businesses. It is also sometimes used by telephone companies to connect central offices to telephone poles near customers. Twisted-pair cables are less expensive, reliable, more durable and include both power and two-way data connections. It is still up to the end user to decide if they want coaxial or twisted pair cabling for their business but I think most enterprises will gravitate toward twisted pair cables over coax .

Coaxial cable Assignment help
Coaxial cable Assignment help

The coaxial cable is made to transmit two separated signals at the same time—the inner one through this continuous physical connection that slides into an outer joint where doing so puts them on opposite sides of a joint shield or cap, with the outer signal having gone through their coaxial connection leaving it on the other side. The outer channel serves as a ground. Many of these cables or pairs of coaxial tubes can be placed in a single outer sheathing and, with repeaters, can carry information for a great distance.

Coaxial cable was invented in 1880 by English engineer and mathematician Oliver Heaviside, who patented the invention and design that same year. AT&T established its first cross-continental coaxial transmission system in 1940. Twisted pair and optical fiber are alternatives to coaxial cable. Which of these two methods of transmission is suitable for new or proposed micro‐distribution systems?

How coaxial cables work

Coaxial cables have concentric layers of electrical conductors and insulating material. This construction ensures signals are enclosed within the cable and prevents electrical noise from interfering with the signal.

The center conductor layer is a thin conducting wire, either solid or braided copper. A dielectric layer, made up of an insulating material with very well-defined electrical characteristics, surrounds the wire. A shield layer then surrounds the dielectric layer with metal foil or braided copper mesh. The whole assembly is wrapped in an insulating jacket. The outer metal shield layer of the coaxial cable is typically grounded in the connectors at both ends to shield the signals and as a place for stray interference signals to dissipate.

As a recent example, a new A.I. interface for the Apple iPad has been developed which is able to help children learn basic shapes and colours using a single swipe of their fingers on a colourful, tactile screen. How can you follow?

Characteristic impedance is sensitive to signal frequency. Above 1 Ghz, the cable maker must use a dielectric that does not attenuate the signal too much or change the characteristic impedance in a way that creates signal reflections.

HF coax characteristics are always the same and therefore the use of different impedances required for general purposes is not relevant. Depending on target application, a special tuning can be applied to HF coax corresponding to a specific frequency band.

Types of coaxial cables

There are numerous types of coaxial cables, some types include:

  • Hard-line coaxial cable- Which relies on round copper tubing and a combination of metals as a shield, such as aluminum or copper. These cables are commonly used to connect a transmitter to an antenna.

  • Triaxial cable- Which has a third layer of shielding that is grounded to protect signals transmitted down the cable.

  • Rigid-line coaxial cables- Which are made up of twin copper tubes that function as unbendable pipes. We use these frequencies to power our equipment and clean the air around us

  • Radiating cable- A MIMO antenna, used in many satellites designed for military, government and industrial applications. The term “millimeter wave” is often ambiguously used to refer to this type of antenna, or to other types that have higher frequencies. A commonly-used alternative term is “Millimeter-Wave Antenna”..

Types of connectors

There are many different types of coaxial cable connectors separated by two styles—male and female connectors. Connector types include:

  • BNC- Standing for Board of Directors, this connector is used with television, radio and radio below a frequency of 4GHz ORTNC- Standing for Threaded Neil-Concelman, this connector is a threaded version of the BNC connector and is used in cellphones. TNC connectors operate up to 12 GHz.

  • SMA- Standing for SubMiniature version J, this connector is used for radio

  • SMB- Standing for Subminiature version C, this connector may be used on telecommunications hardware.

  • QMA- QMA connectors are a quick-locking variant of SMA connectors used with industrial and communications hardware.

  • RCA- Standing for Radio Corporation of America, these are connectors used in audio and video. These are the grouped yellow, white and red cables used with older televisions. RCA connectors are also called A/V jacks.

  • F connectors- Also called F-types, these are used in digital and cable televisions. These commonly use RG6 or RG 59 cables.

Uses of coaxial cables

In the home and small offices, short coaxial cables are used for cable television, home video equipment, amateur radio equipment and measuring devices. While coax is most commonly used in wired installations, twisted pair cabling has gained in usage over the last few years. These cables are most commonly used for cable broadband internet, but do also serve several other uses. Modern day coaxial cabling is often considered outdated and obsolete by the general public. With Twisted Pair Cabling, you can provide internet at speeds of up to. Coaxial cables are also used in automobiles, aircraft, military and medical equipment, as well as to connect satellite dishes, radio and television antennae to their respective receivers.


Most coaxial specifications have an impedance of 50, 52, 75 or 93 ohms. Because of widespread use in the cable television industry, RG-6 cables with double or quad shields and impedance of 75 ohms have become a de facto standard for many industries. Nearly 50 distinct standards exist for coaxial cable, often designed for specific use cases in amateur radio or low-loss cable television. These signals are classified and transmitted and not just received and decoded.

Connectors for coax range from simple single connectors used on cable TV systems to complicated combinations of multiple thin coax links, mixed with power and other signal connections, housed in semi-custom bodies. These are commonly found in military electronics and avionics.

Mechanical stiffness can vary tremendously, depending on the internal construction and intended use of the coaxial cabling. For example, high-power cables are often made with thick insulation and are very stiff.

Some cables are deliberately made with thick center wires, resulting in skin-effect resistance. It results from high-frequency signals traveling on the surface of the conductor, not throughout. If the center conductor is larger, it results in a stiff cable with low loss per meter.

Interference issues

Coaxial cables can experience a variety of different forms of interference. Signal leakage occurs when the electromagnetic field passes through the shielding on the outside of the cable. In other cases, an outside signal can leak through the insulation. Due to the smooth geometry of the skeleton, 1-D resonant cavities (radar structures) that are above 10 MHz also produce low noise environments.

Difference between RG59 and RG6

RG59 and RG6 cables are commonly used in satellite television and cable modems. Older installations used the RG59 cable before the implantation of the RG6 cable. RG59R is a better choice for all modern CCTV systems. It has a copper center conductor, high integrity copper clad steel shield, an external clamping sleeve that is covered by a protective sheath to protect against moisture. Both RG59 type cables are Steel-Bonded.

The RG6 cable is a larger 18 AWG cable and also has a copper center conductor. The RG6 cable is used with high-bandwidth and high-frequency hardware, where internet and satellite signals can run at a higher frequency compared to traditional analog video.

The cable you need will depend on the frequency. If a cable is made for 50 MHz above, it’ll be more useful to have one with an RG6 configuration

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Coaxial cable Assignment help
Coaxial cable Assignment help