2022 perfect SONET assignment help
SONET is an IT Industry standard and even though it is a common means of data transmission, its applications in the real world are not yet widespread. The use of SONET is especially interesting in conjunction with building ultra low-latency infrastructures such as high-speed superhighways & fiber optic networks. The official name given to SONET is: serial SONET connection. Assignmentsguru is a place where you can hire writers who will do your work at no extra charge with any specific deadline set by you. We are your dedicated SONET assignment writing site that provide top quality assignments services at affordable price with our team of experts working on your behalf all day long!
The introduction of the Internet and the widespread proliferation of computers and digital communications links in most parts of the world made SONET obsolete. Today SONET acts as a standard so that digital networks can interconnect and that existing conventional transmission systems can take advantage of optical media through tributary attachments. Backbone carrier networks will typically utilize SONET. Typically, telecommunication companies will share data over the line of a fiber optic cable instead of going through the more expensive process of digging trenches to bury new cables. Data is multiplexed by separating the cable into separate channels. All it takes is an open fibre connection, a simple WiFi or 5 GHz datacom for data speeds to be reached.
The network elements defined in SONET include the STS multiplexer, STS demultiplexer, regenerator and the add/drop multiplexer. The STS multiplexer is the process that multiplexes signals and converts electrical signals to optical ones. STS demultiplexer condenses signals and converts optical signals back to electrical signals. Regenerators increase incoming optical signals, allowing them to travel farther. The add/drop multiplexer enables a signal to be added or removed from a source.
SONET connections are broken down between sections, lines and paths. A section is the part of a network which connects two devices. The line connects two multiplexers, and the path is the network end-to-end.
SONET also defines four different layers, the path, line, section and photonic layers. The path layer moves signals from its source to its destination. The line layer is where the signal moves across the cable. The section layer defines the movement of signals across cables. The photonic layer is the specification for optical fiber channels.
Overview of SONET
Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) is a synchronous optical network, which is composed of multiple nodes that are connected to each other.
SONET is a form of an optical-fiber communication network that can be used to transmit data at high speeds over long distances. It was originally developed in the 1980s by AT&T Bell Laboratories, and it has since become the industry standard for the transmission of voice and data over fiber-optic lines. SONET networks are built on two separate standards: Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) and Synchronous Optical Networking (SON). SDH is used primarily for telephony traffic, while SONETs are used primarily for data traffic.
SONET is a fiber-optic communication system that transmits information in the form of pulses of light through a synchronous system. SONET is designed for use in metropolitan and regional networks, with or without backup from terrestrial systems.
It can be used in point-to-point connections, or to connect between multiplexed channels on the same fiber cable.
SONET connects sites on standard optical fibers using an optical multiplexer at each end to add or drop traffic onto adjacent optical fibers. At the receiving side, the signals are converted back to an electrical digital signal and sent to its destination through a communications interface such as Ethernet.
The Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) is a highly reliable data network for industrial production, industrial automation, process control and other industrial applications.
SONET was developed in the late 1970s by NASA for use in their space shuttle missions. The need for a more reliable communication line between NASA’s various facilities led to its invention. SONET provides data transmission rates of up to 155 Mbit/s over optical fiber cable distances of up to 8000 km.
SONET provides standards for the exchange rate of lines up to 100 Gbps. The actual exchange rates are much higher at about 9000 kilobits per second (Mbps)
Base units of SONET are defined as Optical Carrier level-1, or OC-1. OC-1 supports up to 51.84 megabytes per second (Mbps). The next level up, OC-4, supports up to quadruple the bandwidth Each level increases by multiples of four. OC-3, OC-12, OC-24, OC-48 can be used as examples. Optical carrier levels are an important benchmark for insurers that receive claims. As recently as two years ago, OCx was not a commonly recognized term. Now it’s the subject of industry talk every single day!
SONET standards are specified in ANSI T1.105 and T1.117.
Benefits of SONET
SONET is seen to have multiple characteristics that are considered advantageous, such as:
High data rates.
Large transmit distances.
Support for multiple data types (voice and video)
Can carry high-level protocols such as IP.There are lots of different languages & protocols that can be used for communication between computers, but the main problem is that they don’t have a standardised interface. The internet protocol (IP) is a good example of a protocol that is commonly used, but there are many other protocols which do not have a common interface.
Defines interoperability standards for organizations.
The one main disadvantage of utilizing SONET, however, is that it is high in cost.
SONET vs. SDH
Synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) is the international equivalent of SONET, but it operates at much higher speeds which allow for connectivity up to 10 times faster than SONET. However, the basic unit for SDH is called the synchronous transmission module level-1(STM-1), as compared to SONET’s Optical Carrier level.
SDH is an International Telecommunications Union (ITU) standard and can work with SONET line rates. However, SONET and SDH have differing structures when restructuring data. SDH frames are made out of 2,430 bytes and use Synchronous Transport Module (STM), while SONET frames are made up of 6,480 and use Synchronous Transport Signal (STS).
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