2022 Basic of computer assignment help
What is a computer
We all know what a computer is but what other things do computers do? There are many machines in our daily lives that do literally everything that a human can. A computer is a machine that does literally everything that a human can. It’s the brain of a machine – it does everything from developing software, to running you through your day, to reading your emails over and over again, to running the world economy and the entire Internet! Even if you don’t have any idea about computers, you probably have heard or read something about them from some source or other.
The biggest contrast between computers and humans is one of contrast: The difference between digital assistants and humans. Computers can be programmed with an unlimited number of rules which they follow regardless of their purpose. This allows them to perform tasks that
You need to feel like you are in a real computer with its user interface. Online data is stored in the cloud and made available to users through web browsers. Cloud computing is not new, but it has gained popularity in recent times due to its ability to provide more flexibility and performance than information stored on dedicated servers.
Cloud computing is also gaining momentum in the advertising industry because of its ability to solve scaling issues which are common when working with large amounts of data, such as the amount of content that needs to be processed at once. The key advantage of cloud computing is that it can be easily managed by different departments without any extra effort or investments since all the infrastructure for processing data resides there. This makes it ideal for companies that need an additional layer between themselves and their customers when it comes to publishing
Classification of computers
Historically computers were classified according to processor types because development in processor and processing speeds were the developmental benchmarks. Earliest computers used vacuum tubes for processing, were huge and broke down frequently. However, as vacuum tubes were replaced by transistors and then chips, their size decreased and processing speeds increased manifold.
All modern computers and computing devices use microprocessors whose speeds and storage capacities are skyrocketing day by day. The developmental benchmark for computers is now their size. Computers are now classified on the basis of their use or size
Desktop computers are personal computers (PCs) designed for use by an individual at a fixed location. IBM was the first computer to introduce and popularize use of desktops. A desktop unit typically has a CPU (Central Processing Unit), monitor, keyboard and mouse. Introduction of desktops popularized use of computers among common people as it was compact and affordable.
Despite its huge popularity, desktops gave way to a more compact and portable personal computer called laptop in 2000s. Laptops are also called notebook computers or simply notebooks. Laptops run using batteries and connect to networks using Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) chips. They also have chips for energy efficiency so that they can conserve power whenever possible and have a longer life.
After laptops computers were further miniaturized to develop machines that have processing power of a desktop but are small enough to be held in one’s palm. Tablets have touch sensitive screen of typically 5 to 10 inches where one finger is used to touch icons and invoke applications.
Servers are computers with high processing speeds that provide one or more services to other systems on the network. They may or may not have screens attached to them. A group of computers or digital devices connected together to share resources is called a network.
Mainframes are computers used by organizations like banks, airlines and railways to handle millions and trillions of online transactions per second.
They are the fastest computers on Earth. They are used for carrying out complex, fast and time intensive calculations for scientific and engineering applications. Supercomputer speed or performance is measured in teraflops, i.e. 1012 floating point operations per second.
Software concepts of computers
As you know, the hardware devices need user instructions to function. A set of instructions that achieve a single outcome are called program or procedure. Many programs functioning together to do a task make a software.
Software required to run the hardware parts of the computer and other application software are called system software. System software acts as interface between hardware and user applications. An interface is needed because hardware devices or machines and humans speak in different languages.
A software that performs a single task and nothing else is called application software. Application software are very specialized in their function and approach to solving a problem. So a spreadsheet software can only do operations with numbers and nothing else. A hospital management software will manage hospital activities and nothing else. Here are some commonly used application software −
Application software that assist system software in doing their work is called utility software. Thus utility software is actually a cross between system software and application software. Examples of utility software include −
Disk management tools
File management tools
Types of languages used in computer
Machine-level language − There is no simple way to teach the machines any language because only trivial strings are available to be regurgitated by the machines.
Assembly-level language − This language introduces a layer of abstraction by defining mnemonics. Mnemonics are English like words or symbols used to denote a long string of 0s and 1s. For example, the word “READ” can be defined to mean that computer has to retrieve data from the memory. The complete instruction will also tell the memory address. Assembly level language is machine dependent.
High level language − This language uses English like statements and is completely independent of machines. Programs written using high level languages are easy to create, read and understand
Types of number system in computer
Decimal Number System
Decimal number system is a base 10 number system having 10 digits from 0 to 9. This means that any numerical quantity can be represented using these 10 digits. Decimal number system is also a positional value system. This means that the value of digits will depend on its position.
Binary Number System
The easiest way to vary instructions through electric signals is two-state system – on and off. On is represented as 1 and off as 0, though 0 is not actually no signal but signal at a lower voltage. The number system having just these two digits – 0 and 1 – is called binary number system.
Octal Number System
Octal number system has eight digits – 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7. Octal number system is also a positional value system with where each digit has its value expressed in powers of 8,
Types of operating systems in computers
GUI is the acronym for Graphical User Interface. An operating system that presents an interface comprising graphics and icons is called a GUI OS. GUI OS is very easy to navigate and use as users need not remember commands to be given to accomplish each task. Examples of GUI OS includes Windows, macOS, Ubuntu, etc.
Time Sharing OS
Operating systems that schedule tasks for efficient processor use are called time sharing OS. Time sharing, or multitasking, is used by operating systems when multiple users located at different terminals need processor time to complete their tasks. Many scheduling techniques like round robin scheduling and shortest job next scheduling are used by time sharing OS.
Real Time OS
An operating system that guarantees to process live events or data and deliver the results within a stipulated span of time is called a real time OS. It may be single tasking or multitasking.
An operating system that manages many computers but presents an interface of single computer to the user is called distributed OS. Such type of OS is required when computational requirements cannot be met by a single computer and more systems have to be used. User interaction is restricted to a single system; it’s the OS that distributed work to multiple systems and then presents the consolidated output as if one computer has worked on the problem at hand.
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